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Table 2 EISCAT_3D radar coverage and location requirements for different science topics, together with suggestions for complementary instruments

From: The science case for the EISCAT_3D radar

Science topic Horizontal coverage Optimal location of radar Number of beams; other requirements Complementary ground-based instruments
Mesoscale electrodynamics and flows (including BBFs) As wide as possible (30° elevation with all azimuths) Within auroral oval 20 × 20; multi-static meas. Magnetometers, optical equipment, tomography radio receivers, SuperDARN
Small-scale (auroral) dynamics 100 km in the F region, 33 km in the E region Within the auroral oval 30 in N-S, 10 in E-W; Multi-static meas. Optical equipment, rockets
– “– – “– – “– – “–
Fine-scale auroral structures 5 km in the E region, within 10–20 km from magnetic zenith in the F region Within the auroral oval 5–7 N-S, 1–7 E-W; multi-static meas., interferometric studies Optical equipment, rockets
– “– – “– – “– – “–
Ion outflow (natural and heater-induced) ~100 km curvature of field line Within the auroral oval N-S fan of 5–10 beams Optical equipment, rockets
NEIALs (aperture synthesis imaging) 40 km × 40 km at 700 km Within the auroral oval Spreading the beam in the F-A direction; plasma lines ±6 MHz Optical equipment, rockets
Ionospheric irregularities As wide as possible Within the auroral oval 20 × 20 GPS scintillation measurements, rockets
Topside composition (O+, He+, H+) N/A (field line tracing)   Fan, enough to cover field line curving Optical equipment, rockets
Transition region composition (NO+/O2 + vs. O+) N/A   One; heater ion-cyclotron freq. gives additional information Optical equipment, rockets
High-energy particle events (SEPs, etc.) As wide as possible Oval and just equatorward of the oval 20 × 20 VLF, riometers, MF radar, satellites (POES, GOES, LANL, etc.), rockets
  – “–   – “–
Atmosphere-ionosphere coupling (AGW, winds) As wide as possible Auroral oval and at the edge of the polar vortex 20 × 20 MST radar, MF radar, meteor radar, lidar, airglow imager, FPI, sounding rockets, heater (API)
Mesosphere-stratosphere-troposphere (MST) small-scale dynamics As wide as possible Location inside the polar winter vortex favourable for some questions 20 × 20 (M), one (ST); additional low-power TX mode, dual frequency (200–1000-kHz separation) for interferometric distance determination MST radar, MF radar, meteor radar, lidar, airglow imager, sounding rockets, heater
D region phenomena As wide as possible Oval and just equatorward of the oval 20 × 20 Riometer, VLF, MF radar, rockets, heater
PMSE, PMWE As wide as possible   20 × 20 MST radar, additional ISR at higher frequency, lidar, sounding rockets, heater
Meteoroids and their effects on the background (Es, PMSE, etc.), high-power mode Fattened beam or multiple beams   Tracking mode (20 × 20 piggyback), fan for receiver beams, multi-static measurements for trajectory Meteor radar, MST radar, optical networks
Planets and asteroids Low elevation look direction to the south, at least 25° As far south as possible One; arbitrary polarisation TX and RX, hydrogen maser clocks Other IS radars, optical instruments
Interplanetary scintillation Low elevation with all azimuths, particularly to the south   One; BW > 20 MHz, minimal RFI and ability to clip out individual narrow-frequency bands prior to integration over the bandwidth Other radio receiver networks, including LOFAR and e-MERLIN
Heating experiments 20° zenith angle Auroral oval 10 × 10 MST radar, airglow imager, FPI, sounding rockets
Heating experiments, aperture synthesis imaging 20° zenith angle   Fatten the beam or multiple beams (10 × 10) MST radar, airglow imager, FPI, sounding rockets
Space debris monitoring and satellite tracking 25° elevation with all azimuths North for satellite tracking N/A; multi-static meas. for trajectory, multiple overlapping receiver beams for interferometric angle determination, dual freq. (200–1000-kHz separation) for interferometric distance determination  
Meteoroid monitoring (piggyback and low-power mode) N/A   N/A Meteor radar, MST radar, optical networks