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Fig. 18 | Progress in Earth and Planetary Science

Fig. 18

From: The science case for the EISCAT_3D radar

Fig. 18

Both hydrogen ion (H+) and oxygen ion (O+) upflows in the topside polar ionosphere were recently observed with the ESR radar in the vicinity of the cusp. On closed field lines, the H+ became the larger contributor to the upward flux above about 550 km (see Ogawa et al. 2009)

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