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Table 3 A list of key stratigraphic sections in the northwest Pacific reviewed in this paper that reveal the 5 million year to recent history of the Kuroshio and Tsushima Currents

From: The Pliocene to recent history of the Kuroshio and Tsushima Currents: a multi-proxy approach

Summary of the key sections
1. Pliocene to Middle Pleistocene history of the Kuroshio Current
Oldest (Ma) Youngest (Ma) Group/formation Location Proxy/proxies Author
9 2.5 Shimajiri Group Okinawa-jima Nannofossils Imai et al. 2013
5.3 3.5 Shimajiri Group Okinawa-jima Nannofossils Imai et al. 2013
5 3 Miyazaki Group Kyushu Molluscs Tomida and Kitao 2002; Tomida et al. 2013
Pliocene Pleistocene   East and West Japan Ostracoda Ikeya and Cronin 1993
Pliocene Early Pleistocene   Pacific side of Japan Molluscs Tsuchi and Shuto 1984; Ogasawara 1994
3 0 Chinen Formation Okinawa-jima Benthic Foraminifera Gallagher et al. 2009
3.58 0.78 Seagipo Formation Jeju island Benthic Foraminifera Kang et al. 2010
2.8 2.5   Kyushu Ostracod/Planktic foraminifera Iwatani et al. 2012
1.65 0 Ryukyu Group Ryukyu Islands Coral reefs/corals Yamamoto et al. 2006; Iryu et al. 2006; Montaggioni et al. 2011
ca. 700 ky ca. 700 ky Kazusa Group West coast Japan Sand ridge facies analyses Ito and Horikawa 2000
144 ky 0   Off central Japan, Pacfic Radiolarians Yasudomi et al. 2014
150 ky 0   Tohoku Diatoms Koizumi and Yamamoto 2011
2. Late Pleistocene to Holocene Kuroshio Current
Oldest Youngest Section type Location Proxy/proxies Author
55 ky 0 Core South of Japan UK’ 37index Sawada and Handa,1998
LGM 0 Core Ryukyu Arc Planktic foraminifera/oxygen isotopes Ujiié and Ujiié 1999; Jian et al. 2000; Ujiié et al. 2003
10.5 ky 0 Core East China Sea Mg/Ca and C/O analyses Lin et al. 2006: Kubota et al. 2010
9 ky 0 Submarine cave Okinawa-jima δ 18O micro-bivalves Yamamoto et al. 2010; Kitamura et al. 2013
6.5 ka BP 5.0 ka BP   East coast Japan Molluscs Matsushima 1984
LGM 9.5 ka BP ODP Leg 195, Site 1202   Detrital sediment and sorting analyses Dieckmann et al. 2008
13 ky 0 ODP Leg 195, Site 1202   Nannofossils Su and Wei 2005; Wei 2006
LGM 0 Core Okinawa Trough Mg/Ca; d18O data; ocean modeling Kao et al. 2006; Lee et al. 2013
LGM 0 Core Hesse Rise, Pacific Ocean Palynoflora Kawahata and Ohshima 2002
LGM 0 Core Northwestern Pacific Ocean Radiolarians Yamamoto et al. 2004
LGM 0 Core Northeastern East China Sea Palynoflora Kawahata and Ohshima 2004
3. Pliocene to Middle Pleistocene history of the Tsushima Current
Oldest (Ma) Youngest (Ma) Group/Formation Location Proxy/proxies Author
4 2.2 Mita Formation Joetsu Molluscs Amano et al. 2008
3.5 1.7 See Fig. 4 Joetsu Molluscs/Planktic foraminifera Kitamura et al. 1999; Kitamura and Kimoto 2006
1.7 0.8 Omma Formation Joetsu Molluscs/Planktic foraminifera Kitamura et al. 1999; Kitamura and Kimoto 2006
1.6 1 Omma Formation Joetsu Benthic foraminifera Hoiles et al. 2012
0.8 0 Various Central and northern Japan Molluscs Omura 1980; Matsuura 1985; Nishimura 1996; Chiba and Sato 2014
1.7 0.8 Oki Ridge ODP Site 798 Planktic foraminifera Kheradyar 1992
3.4 130 ka Various Japan Sea Diatoms Koizumi 2013
1.7   Core DSDP Site 302 Radiolarians Kamikuri and Motoyama 2007
Mid Pleist Late Pleist Core Japan Sea Radiolarians Morley et al. 1986; Itaki 2001, 2007; Itaki et al. 2007
4. Late Pleistocene to Holocene Tsushima Current
Oldest Youngest Section type Location Proxy/proxies Author
yrs yrs  
16,000 11,000 Shelf outcrop Japan Sea off southwestern Japan Molluscs Chiji et al. 1981
9300 5000 Core Off Sado Island Molluscs Kitamura et al. 2011
8610   Outcrop Tsushima Islands Molluscs Saito et al. 1995
7200 900 Outcrop Coastal area along Hokkaido Molluscs Kito et al. 1998: Matsushima 2010
9300 0 Core Japan Sea Planktic foraminifera Domitsu and Oda 2006
8300 6800 Core Off the coast of Sanin Planktic foraminifera Takata et al. 2006
10,000 8000 Core Japan Sea Radiolarians Itaki 2001