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Table 1 Biogeographic proxies for the Kuroshio and Tsushima Currents

From: The Pliocene to recent history of the Kuroshio and Tsushima Currents: a multi-proxy approach

Kuroshio Current indicators Tsushima Current indicators
Microfossils  
 Planktic foraminifers  Planktic foraminifers
   Beella digitata    Globigerinoides ruber
   Globigerinella calida   Neogloboquadrina pachyderma (Dextral)
   Globigerinoides ruber    Pulleniatina obliquiloculata
   Globigerinoides sacculifer  
   Globigernioides conglobatus  
   Globorotalia hirsuta  
   Globorotalia menardii  
   Pulleniatina obliquiloculata  
   Sphaeroidinella dehiscens s.l.  
 Indo-Pacific benthic foraminifers  Indo-Pacific benthic foraminifers
   Asterorotalia gaimardii    Asterorotalia gaimardii
   Asterorotalia spp.    Asterorotalia spp.
   Heterolepa margaritiferus    Heterolepa margaritiferus
   Pseudorotalia indopacifica  
  Nannoplankton  Nannoplankton
   Calcidiscus leptoporous    Calcidiscus leptoporous
   Ceratolithos cristatus    Gephyrocapsa oceanica
   Florisphaera profunda/profunda + Emiliania huxlei + Geophyrocapsa oceanica (F-EG ratio)    Helicosphaera carteri
   Gephyrocapsa oceanica  
   Helicosphaera carteri  
   Oolithus fragilis  
   Rhabdosphaera clavigera  
   Thoracosphaera spp.  
   Umbellosphaeara spp.  
   Umbilicosphaera siboga foliacea  
 Diatoms (see Table 2)  Diatoms (see Table 2)
 Ostracods  
   Argiloecia hanaii    Bradylyea
   Cytheropteron rhombea    Cytheropteron miurense
   Cytheropteron uchioi    Hirsutocythere? hanaii
Munseyella japonica    Krithe
   Neonesidea oligodentata    Macrocypris decola
     Neonesidea oligodentata s.l.
     Schizocythere kishinouyei
 Radiolaria  Radiolaria
   Acrosphaera spinosa    Dictocoryne profunda
   Dictocoryne profunda    Dictocoryne truncatum
   Dictocoryne truncatum    Didymocyrtis tetrathalamus
   Didymocyrtis tetrathalamus    Euchitonia flucata
   Lithelius minor    Monozonium pachystylum
   Spongaster tetrars    Octopyle stenozona
   Spongosphaera streptcantha    Pseudocubus obeliscus
   Stylodictya arachnia    Spongosphaera streptcantha
   Stylodictya multispina    Tetrapyle octacantha
Macrofossils  
 Molluscs (gastropods and bivalves)  Molluscs (gastropods and bivalves)
   Cryptopecten vesiculosus    Crenulilimopsis oblonga
   Cucullaea labiata    Cycladicama cumingi
   Cycladicama cumingi    Jupiteria gordonis
   Hartungia spp.    Paphia schnelliana
   Jupiteria confuse    Stellaria exutum
   Paphia amabilis    Zeuxis castus
   Paphia schnelliana  
   Stellaria exutum  
   Venus foveolata  
 Corals  Corals
   Acropora pruinosa    Cyphastrea spp.
   Acropora solitaryensis    Echinophyllia spp.
   Alveopora japonica    Favia speciosa
   Blastomussa wellsi    Hydnophora spp.
   Caulastreae tumida  
   Cyloseris hexagonalis  
   Cycloseris cyclolites  
   Cyphastrea chalcidicum  
   Cyphastrea microphthalma  
   Cyphastrea serailia  
   Echinophyllia apera  
   Euphyllia ancora  
   Favia speciosa  
   Goniapora columna  
   Goniapora lobata  
   Hydnophora exesa  
   Leptastreae purpurea  
   Leptoseris mycetoseroides  
   Oulastrea crispata  
   Pavona varians  
   Pleisastrea versipora  
   Porites heronensis  
   Psammocora profundacella  
   Psammocora superficialis  
  1. Sourced from Chinzei et al. (1987), Veron (1992), Kuroyanagi and Kawahata (2004), Tsuchiya et al. (2004), Yamano et al. (2001, 2012), Gallagher et al. (2009), Hoiles et al. (2012), and Tada et al. (2015). A list of diatom proxies is included in Table 2