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Table 1 Biogeographic proxies for the Kuroshio and Tsushima Currents

From: The Pliocene to recent history of the Kuroshio and Tsushima Currents: a multi-proxy approach

Kuroshio Current indicators

Tsushima Current indicators

Microfossils

 

 Planktic foraminifers

 Planktic foraminifers

   Beella digitata

   Globigerinoides ruber

   Globigerinella calida

  Neogloboquadrina pachyderma (Dextral)

   Globigerinoides ruber

   Pulleniatina obliquiloculata

   Globigerinoides sacculifer

 

   Globigernioides conglobatus

 

   Globorotalia hirsuta

 

   Globorotalia menardii

 

   Pulleniatina obliquiloculata

 

   Sphaeroidinella dehiscens s.l.

 

 Indo-Pacific benthic foraminifers

 Indo-Pacific benthic foraminifers

   Asterorotalia gaimardii

   Asterorotalia gaimardii

   Asterorotalia spp.

   Asterorotalia spp.

   Heterolepa margaritiferus

   Heterolepa margaritiferus

   Pseudorotalia indopacifica

 

  Nannoplankton

 Nannoplankton

   Calcidiscus leptoporous

   Calcidiscus leptoporous

   Ceratolithos cristatus

   Gephyrocapsa oceanica

   Florisphaera profunda/profunda + Emiliania huxlei + Geophyrocapsa oceanica (F-EG ratio)

   Helicosphaera carteri

   Gephyrocapsa oceanica

 

   Helicosphaera carteri

 

   Oolithus fragilis

 

   Rhabdosphaera clavigera

 

   Thoracosphaera spp.

 

   Umbellosphaeara spp.

 

   Umbilicosphaera siboga foliacea

 

 Diatoms (see Table 2)

 Diatoms (see Table 2)

 Ostracods

 

   Argiloecia hanaii

   Bradylyea

   Cytheropteron rhombea

   Cytheropteron miurense

   Cytheropteron uchioi

   Hirsutocythere? hanaii

Munseyella japonica

   Krithe

   Neonesidea oligodentata

   Macrocypris decola

 

   Neonesidea oligodentata s.l.

 

   Schizocythere kishinouyei

 Radiolaria

 Radiolaria

   Acrosphaera spinosa

   Dictocoryne profunda

   Dictocoryne profunda

   Dictocoryne truncatum

   Dictocoryne truncatum

   Didymocyrtis tetrathalamus

   Didymocyrtis tetrathalamus

   Euchitonia flucata

   Lithelius minor

   Monozonium pachystylum

   Spongaster tetrars

   Octopyle stenozona

   Spongosphaera streptcantha

   Pseudocubus obeliscus

   Stylodictya arachnia

   Spongosphaera streptcantha

   Stylodictya multispina

   Tetrapyle octacantha

Macrofossils

 

 Molluscs (gastropods and bivalves)

 Molluscs (gastropods and bivalves)

   Cryptopecten vesiculosus

   Crenulilimopsis oblonga

   Cucullaea labiata

   Cycladicama cumingi

   Cycladicama cumingi

   Jupiteria gordonis

   Hartungia spp.

   Paphia schnelliana

   Jupiteria confuse

   Stellaria exutum

   Paphia amabilis

   Zeuxis castus

   Paphia schnelliana

 

   Stellaria exutum

 

   Venus foveolata

 

 Corals

 Corals

   Acropora pruinosa

   Cyphastrea spp.

   Acropora solitaryensis

   Echinophyllia spp.

   Alveopora japonica

   Favia speciosa

   Blastomussa wellsi

   Hydnophora spp.

   Caulastreae tumida

 

   Cyloseris hexagonalis

 

   Cycloseris cyclolites

 

   Cyphastrea chalcidicum

 

   Cyphastrea microphthalma

 

   Cyphastrea serailia

 

   Echinophyllia apera

 

   Euphyllia ancora

 

   Favia speciosa

 

   Goniapora columna

 

   Goniapora lobata

 

   Hydnophora exesa

 

   Leptastreae purpurea

 

   Leptoseris mycetoseroides

 

   Oulastrea crispata

 

   Pavona varians

 

   Pleisastrea versipora

 

   Porites heronensis

 

   Psammocora profundacella

 

   Psammocora superficialis

 
  1. Sourced from Chinzei et al. (1987), Veron (1992), Kuroyanagi and Kawahata (2004), Tsuchiya et al. (2004), Yamano et al. (2001, 2012), Gallagher et al. (2009), Hoiles et al. (2012), and Tada et al. (2015). A list of diatom proxies is included in Table 2