Drainage map of the Antarctic Ice Sheet and electric conductivity (mS m
) of the study site. (a) (upper left) Drainage map of the Antarctic Ice Sheet showing areas where marine and geological surveys are being conducted to record the extent of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). (right) Detail of the Soya coast, Lützow-Holm Bay, East Antarctica, showing the locations of ice-covered (white) and ice-free (shaded) areas at Rundvågshetta, Skallen, Skarvsnes, and Langhovde. Arrows show the flow directions of the present outlet glaciers (after Sawagaki and Hirakawa 1997). (lower left) Topography at Rundvågshetta, showing the locations of lakes Maruwan, Maruwan-minami, and Maruwan-kita. Labels a to f indicate the locations of the images in Figure 2. NWWS, northwestern Weddell Sea; BS, Bransfield Strait; AP, Antarctic Peninsula; MB, Marguerite Bay; EB, Eltanin Bay; PIB, Pine Island Bay; BC, Bakutis Coast; WG, Wrigley Gulf; SB, Sulzberger Bay; WRS, Western Ross Sea; CRS, Central Ross Sea; ERS, Eastern Ross Sea; NVL, Northern Victoria Land; WLC, Wilkes Land Coast; PC, Pennell Coast; BC, Budd Coast; WI, Windmill Islands; PB, Petersen Bank; VB, Vincennes Bay; VH, Vestfold Hills; PB, Prydz Bay; MRL, Mac. Robertson Land; LHB, Lützow-Holm Bay; EWS, eastern Weddell Sea; SWS, southwestern Weddell Sea (modified from Anderson et al.
2002). (b) Diagram showing the altitudes of lakes (in meters above the mean sea level; AMSL) on the Soya Coast and electrical conductivities of lake waters (in mS/m) obtained by Imura et al. (2003), combined with data from L. Maruwan (diatom-rich microflora; this study) and L. Skallen (cyanobacteria-rich microflora; Takano et al.
2012). Note that the altitude data for L. Maruwan (8.0 m) and L. Skallen (9.64 ± 0.02 m) were referred from Geographical Survey Institute (1984) and Takano et al. (2012), respectively. See the limnological features for the numbers of lakes (Kudoh and Tanabe 2014). Seawater electrical conductivity (e.g., Cox et al.
1967; Lee et al.
2006), salinity (e.g., Koblinsky et al.
2003), and a variety of electrical conductivity measurements in hypersaline lakes (e.g., Williams and Sherwood 1994) are also given.