Time series of Southern Ocean CO
uptake (petagrams of carbon per year) simulated by CMIP5 ESMs. Monthly sea surface CO2 flux is integrated spatially to the south of 45°S and averaged temporally for 5 years before and after (10-year running mean). CO2 concentration-driven runs of historical (thin solid lines, December 2005 and prior), RCP4.5 (thin dashed lines, January 2006 and after), and RCP8.5 (thick dashed lines, January 2006 and after). Model outputs are from CESM1-BGC (red), GFDL-ESM2G (green), GFDL-ESM2M (blue), HadGEM2-ES (cyan), IPSL-CM5A-LR (magenta), IPSL-CM5A-MR (yellow), MIROC-ESM-CHEM (orange), MIROC-ESM (purple), MPI-ESM-MR (yellow green), and bcc-csm1-1 (medium blue).