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Figure 3 | Progress in Earth and Planetary Science

Figure 3

From: What is the solar influence on climate? Overview of activities during CAWSES-II

Figure 3

Energetic particle precipitation (EPP) impact on the atmosphere. Main direct and indirect impacts from EPP (including EEP and SPE). EPP ionisation is focused on the polar regions leading to production of HO x and NO x shown in the figure. Transport processes are shown with grey dotted lines, while coupling mechanisms are indicated with grey dashed lines. Direct chemical impacts are shown with black arrows.

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