Tropopause height, wind speed at 300 hPa, ζ
, horizontal winds at Z
. (a) Height of the lowermost tropopause (Z
TP, color) and wind speed at 300 hPa (contours, m s −1), (b) ζ
TP (color) and horizontal winds at Z
TP (arrows), and (c)
at t=36 h. (b) and (c) are only for the tropopause below 14 km.