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Table 1 Soil metal concentrations and Pb isotopic ratios for samples from Ancient Nara and Naganobori mine

From: Heavy metal pollution in Ancient Nara, Japan, during the eighth century

Site Sample Age Sample Hg ppb Cu ppm Pb ppm Fe ppm Mn ppm Co ppm Ni ppm Zn ppm 208Pb/ 206Pb 207Pb/ 206Pb
A Dark gray gravel containing copper slag Middle eighth century 1-A 92 370 100 34,000 170 21 14 60 2.094 0.850
A Dark gray gravel containing copper slag Middle eighth century 1-B 66 57 32 36,000 240 23 14 52   
A Dark gray clay Twelfth century 2 298 62 18 18,000 140 12 N.D. 26   
A Light orange-colored sand Sixteenth century 3 255 56 210 56,000 170 27 29 120   
B Brownish soil containing wood debris Late eighth century 100 229 18 90 24,000 550 17 11 47   
B Dark gray soil containing wood debris Late eighth century 106 207 8.6 130 14,000 95 9 3.3 30 2.093 0.851
B Dark gray soil containing wood debris Late eighth century 118 133 12 16 15,000 98 7.8 3.5 28   
C River bed Just before the eighth century 203 45 5.6 200 5,800 92 5.2 4.1 23 2.093 0.851
C Soil preparation for Heijo-kyo Early to middle eighth century 204 86 11 1,100 30,000 630 17 15 38 2.093 0.851
C Soil preparation for Heijo-kyo Early to middle eighth century 205 78 4.8 470 12,000 520 9.4 9.4 27   
C Muddy soil around pillar hole Early to middle eighth century 206 92          
C Muddy soil around pillar hole Early to middle eighth century 207 59 5.7 380 10,000 140 4.9 5.7 20   
C Muddy soil burying the well-frame Eighth century 201 107 4.6 500 8,200 150 6.3 5.1 25 2.093 0.851
C Muddy soil burying the well-frame Eighth century 202 103 5.7 15 7,400 140 8.8 6.7 50   
C Muddy soil in dump site around smithy Eighth century 208 157 18 1,200 57,000 2,300 32 22 39 2.093 0.851
C Muddy soil in dump site around smithy Early ninth century 209 155          
C Muddy soil in paddy field Medieval period 210 212 9.3 18 24,000 200 7.2 6.5 26   
C Muddy soil Age of 1870 to 1960 211 521 21 230 11,000 190 4.8 11 50   
C Muddy soil in pillar hole Early to middle eighth century 212 141          
C Muddy soil in pillar hole Early to middle eighth century 213 165          
C Muddy soil in pillar hole Early to middle eighth century 214 118          
C Muddy soil in pillar hole Early to middle eighth century 215 104          
C Muddy soil in pillar hole Early to middle eighth century 216 137          
C Muddy soil in pillar hole Early to middle eighth century 217 106          
C Muddy soil in paddy field Medieval period 218 185          
D Brownish sandy soil Late eighth century 31 276 13 740 61,000 1,200 20 10 110   
D Dark gray silty soil Middle eighth century 34 298 14 880 55,000 730 24 13 140 2.093 0.851
D Dark gray sandy soil Very early eighth century 38 39 2.3 13 21,000 320 14 N.D. 35   
Naganobori mine              
  Slag 300,000 360 180,000 1,800 500 3.9 8,000 2.092 0.846    
  Slag 110,000 62 210,000 1,100 81 1.2 1,400 2.092 0.847    
  Chrysocolla 620,000 21 270 8.1 N.D. N.D. 4,100 2.091 0.847