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Table 2 Specifications of the coupled model and the experimental design for the simulations

From: Typhoon-induced sea surface cooling during the 2011 and 2012 typhoon seasons: observational evidence and numerical investigations of the sea surface cooling effect using typhoon simulations

  T1106 T1109 T1215 T1221L(H)
Horizontal resolution 2 km 2 km 2 km 3 km
Horizontal grid number 1,391 × 1,201 1,101 × 1,101 1,291 × 1,021 701 × 701
Vertical grid number 40
Top height 22,801 m
Time step (atmosphere model) 6 s 6 s 6 s 8 s
Initial time 2011/7/13/0000UTC 2011/7/30/0000UTC 2012/8/21/0000UTC 2012/10/8/0000UTC
Integration time 144 h 84 h 96 h 168 h
Lateral boundary relaxation sponge layers 70 100 60 15
Oceanic initial condition MOVE 0.1° MOVE 0.5° MOVE 0.1° MOVE 0.5° (0.1°)
Surface roughness length Kondo (1975) [uncoupled model]/Taylor and Yelland (2001) [coupled model]
Surface boundary layer   Louis et al. (1982)
Atmospheric boundary process Klemp and Wilhelmson (1978) and Deardorff (1980)
Cloud physics Explicit three-ice bulk microphysics (Lin et al. 1983)
Radiation Sugi et al. (1990)
  1. MOVE, MRI Ocean Variational Estimation.